ExpressionEngine Docs

Active Record

class CI_DB_active_record

ExpressionEngine gives you access to a Active Record class. This pattern allows information to be retrieved, inserted, and updated in your database with minimal scripting. In some cases only one or two lines of code are necessary to perform a database action. It also allows for safer queries, since the values are escaped automatically by the system.

Selecting Data

get([$table = ''[, $limit = NULL[, $offset = NULL]]])

Parameter Type Description
$table String The table name to pull results from
$limit Int The number of rows to pull
$offset Int The number of rows to offset
Returns CI_DB_result A query result object

Runs the selection query and returns the result. Can be used by itself to retrieve all records from a table:

$query = ee()->db->get('mytable');  // Produces: SELECT * FROM mytable

The second and third parameters enable you to set a limit and offset clause:

$query = ee()->db->get('mytable', 10, 20);
// Produces: SELECT * FROM mytable LIMIT 20, 10 (in MySQL. Other databases have slightly different syntax)

You’ll notice that the above function is assigned to a variable named $query, which can be used to show the results:

$query = ee()->db->get('mytable');

foreach ($query->result() as $row)
{
    echo $row->title;
}

Please visit the result functions page for a full discussion regarding result generation.

get_where([$table = ''[, $where = NULL[, $limit = NULL[, $offset = NULL]]]])

Parameter Type Description
$table String The table name to pull results from
$where Mixed Either a string or associative array containing a where() clause
$limit Int The number of rows to pull
$offset Int The number of rows to offset
Returns CI_DB_result A query result object

Identical to the above function except that it permits you to add a WHERE clause in the second parameter, instead of using the where() function:

$query = ee()->db->get_where('mytable', array('id' => $id), $limit, $offset);

Please read the about the where() function below for more information.

select([$select = '*'[, $escape = NULL]])

Parameter Type Description
$select String The columns to select, omit to SELECT *
$escape Boolean Set to FALSE to prevent CI_DB_driver::protect_identifiers() and CI_DB_driver::escape()
Returns CI_DB_active_record The Active Record object

Permits you to write the SELECT portion of your query:

ee()->db->select('title, content, date');
$query = ee()->db->get('mytable');  // Produces: SELECT title, content, date FROM mytable

select() accepts an optional second parameter. If you set it to FALSE, your field or table names will not be escaped or protected. This is useful if you need a compound select statement:

ee()->db->select('(SELECT SUM(payments.amount) FROM payments WHERE payments.invoice_id=4') AS amount_paid', FALSE);
$query = ee()->db->get('mytable');

select_max($select[, $alias = ''])

Parameter Type Description
$select String The field to SELECT
$alias String The alias for the MAX($select) query
Returns CI_DB_active_record The Active Record object

Writes a SELECT MAX(field) portion for your query. You can optionally include a second parameter to rename the resulting field.

ee()->db->select_max('age');
$query = ee()->db->get('members');  // Produces: SELECT MAX(age) as age FROM members

ee()->db->select_max('age', 'member_age');
$query = ee()->db->get('members'); // Produces: SELECT MAX(age) as member_age FROM members

select_min($select[, $alias = ''])

Parameter Type Description
$select String The field to SELECT
$alias String The alias for the MIN($select) query
Returns CI_DB_active_record The Active Record object

Writes a SELECT MIN(field) portion for your query. As with select_max(), You can optionally include a second parameter to rename the resulting field.

ee()->db->select_min('age');
$query = ee()->db->get('members'); // Produces: SELECT MIN(age) as age FROM members

select_avg($select[, $alias = ''])

Parameter Type Description
$select String The field to SELECT
$alias String The alias for the AVG($select) query
Returns CI_DB_active_record The Active Record object

Writes a SELECT AVG(field) portion for your query. As with select_max(), You can optionally include a second parameter to rename the resulting field.

ee()->db->select_avg('age');
$query = ee()->db->get('members'); // Produces: SELECT AVG(age) as age FROM members

select_sum($select[, $alias = ''])

Parameter Type Description
$select String The field to SELECT
$alias String The alias for the SUM($select) query
Returns CI_DB_active_record The Active Record object

Writes a SELECT SUM(field) portion for your query. As with select_max(), You can optionally include a second parameter to rename the resulting field.

ee()->db->select_sum('age');
$query = ee()->db->get('members'); // Produces: SELECT SUM(age) as age FROM members

from($from)

Parameter Type Description
$from Mixed The table to pull FROM, can either be a string or an array of strings
Returns CI_DB_active_record The Active Record object

Permits you to write the FROM portion of your query:

ee()->db->select('title, content, date');
ee()->db->from('mytable');
$query = ee()->db->get();  // Produces: SELECT title, content, date FROM mytable

Note: As shown earlier, the FROM portion of your query can be specified in the get() function, so use whichever method you prefer.

join($table, $cond[, $type = ''])

Parameter Type Description
$table String The table to JOIN
$cond String The condition to join ON
$type String The type of JOIN to perform: LEFT, RIGHT, OUTER, INNER, LEFT OUTER, RIGHT OUTER
Returns CI_DB_active_record The Active Record object

Permits you to write the JOIN portion of your query:

ee()->db->select('*');
ee()->db->from('blogs');
ee()->db->join('comments', 'comments.id = blogs.id');
$query = ee()->db->get();

// Produces:
// SELECT * FROM blogs JOIN comments ON comments.id = blogs.id

Multiple function calls can be made if you need several joins in one query.

If you need a specific type of JOIN you can specify it via the third parameter of the function. Options are: left, right, outer, inner, left outer, and right outer.

ee()->db->join('comments', 'comments.id = blogs.id', 'left');
// Produces: LEFT JOIN comments ON comments.id = blogs.id

where($key[, $value = NULL[, $escape = TRUE]])

Parameter Type Description
$key String Either the field to compare or an array containing the fields as keys and the value as the value. The field will contain the comparison operators (e.g. <, <=, >, >=, !=, =). By default = is used if no comparison operator is provided.
$value String The value to compare to
$escape Boolean Set to FALSE to prevent CI_DB_driver::protect_identifiers() and CI_DB_driver::escape()
Returns CI_DB_active_record The Active Record object

This function enables you to set WHERE clauses using one of four methods:

Note: All values passed to this function are escaped automatically, producing safer queries.

  1. Simple key/value method:

    ee()->db->where('name', $name); // Produces: WHERE name = 'Joe'

    Notice that the equal sign is added for you.

    If you use multiple function calls they will be chained together with AND between them:

    ee()->db->where('name', $name);
    ee()->db->where('title', $title);
    ee()->db->where('status', $status);
    // WHERE name = 'Joe' AND title = 'boss' AND status = 'active'
  2. Custom key/value method: You can include an operator in the first parameter in order to control the comparison:

    ee()->db->where('name !=', $name);
    ee()->db->where('id <', $id); // Produces: WHERE name != 'Joe' AND id < 45
  3. Associative array method:

    $array = array('name' => $name, 'title' => $title, 'status' => $status);
    ee()->db->where($array);
    // Produces: WHERE name = 'Joe' AND title = 'boss' AND status = 'active'

    You can include your own operators using this method as well:

    $array = array('name !=' => $name, 'id <' => $id, 'date >' => $date);
    ee()->db->where($array);
  4. Custom string: You can write your own clauses manually:

    $where = "name='Joe' AND status='boss' OR status='active'";
    ee()->db->where($where);

where() accepts an optional third parameter. If you set it to FALSE, your field or table names will not be escaped or protected:

ee()->db->where('MATCH (field) AGAINST ("value")', NULL, FALSE);

or_where($key[, $value = NULL[, $escape = TRUE]])

Parameter Type Description
$key String Either the field to compare or an array containing the fields as keys and the value as the value. The field will contain the comparison operators (e.g. <, <=, >, >=, !=, =). By default = is used if no comparison operator is provided.
$value String The value to compare to
$escape Boolean Set to FALSE to prevent CI_DB_driver::protect_identifiers() and CI_DB_driver::escape()
Returns CI_DB_active_record The Active Record object

This function is identical to the one above, except that multiple instances are joined by OR:

ee()->db->where('name !=', $name);
ee()->db->or_where('id >', $id);  // Produces: WHERE name != 'Joe' OR id > 50

where_in($key, $values)

Parameter Type Description
$key String The field for the WHERE ... IN clause
$values Array The array of values
Returns CI_DB_active_record The Active Record object

Generates a WHERE field IN ('item', 'item') SQL query joined with AND if appropriate:

$names = array('Frank', 'Todd', 'James');
ee()->db->where_in('username', $names);
// Produces: WHERE username IN ('Frank', 'Todd', 'James')

or_where_in($key, $values)

Parameter Type Description
$key String The field for the OR WHERE ... IN clause
$values Array The array of values
Returns CI_DB_active_record The Active Record object

Generates a WHERE field IN ('item', 'item') SQL query joined with OR if appropriate:

$names = array('Frank', 'Todd', 'James');
ee()->db->or_where_in('username', $names);
// Produces: OR username IN ('Frank', 'Todd', 'James')

where_not_in($key, $values)

Parameter Type Description
$key String The field for the WHERE NOT ... IN clause
$values Array The array of values
Returns CI_DB_active_record The Active Record object

Generates a WHERE field NOT IN ('item', 'item') SQL query joined with AND if appropriate:

$names = array('Frank', 'Todd', 'James');
ee()->db->where_not_in('username', $names);
// Produces: WHERE username NOT IN ('Frank', 'Todd', 'James')

or_where_not_in($key, $values)

Parameter Type Description
$key String The field for the OR WHERE NOT ... IN clause
$values Array The array of values
Returns CI_DB_active_record The Active Record object

Generates a WHERE field NOT IN ('item', 'item') SQL query joined with OR if appropriate:

$names = array('Frank', 'Todd', 'James');
ee()->db->or_where_not_in('username', $names);
// Produces: OR username NOT IN ('Frank', 'Todd', 'James')

like($field[, $match = ''[, $side = 'both']])

Parameter Type Description
$field Mixed Either the field name for the WHERE ... LIKE clause, or an associative array where the keys are fields and the values are the match
$match String The value to match against
$side String Controls where the wildcard (%) is placed, by default uses 'both' for both sides, but you can also use left or right
Returns CI_DB_active_record The Active Record object

This method enables you to generate LIKE clauses, useful for doing searches.

  1. Simple key/value method

    ee()->db->like('title', 'match');
    // Produces: WHERE `title` LIKE '%match%' ESCAPE '!'

    If you use multiple method calls they will be chained together with AND between them:

    ee()->db->like('title', 'match');
    ee()->db->like('body', 'match');
    // WHERE `title` LIKE '%match%' ESCAPE '!' AND  `body` LIKE '%match% ESCAPE '!'

    If you want to control where the wildcard (%) is placed, you can use an optional third argument. Your options are 'before', 'after', and 'both' (which is the default):

    ee()->db->like('title', 'match', 'before'); // Produces: WHERE `title` LIKE '%match' ESCAPE '!'
    ee()->db->like('title', 'match', 'after');  // Produces: WHERE `title` LIKE 'match%' ESCAPE '!'
    ee()->db->like('title', 'match', 'both');   // Produces: WHERE `title` LIKE '%match%' ESCAPE '!'
  2. Associative array method

    $array = array('title' => $match, 'page1' => $match, 'page2' => $match);
    ee()->db->like($array);
    // WHERE `title` LIKE '%match%' ESCAPE '!' AND  `page1` LIKE '%match%' ESCAPE '!' AND  `page2` LIKE '%match%' ESCAPE '!'

or_like($field[, $match = ''[, $side = 'both']])

Parameter Type Description
$field Mixed Either the field name for the OR ... LIKE clause, or an associative array where the keys are fields and the values are the match
$match String The value to match against
$side String Controls where the wildcard (%) is placed, by default uses 'both' for both sides, but you can also use left or right
Returns CI_DB_active_record The Active Record object

This method is identical to the one above, except that multiple instances are joined by OR:

ee()->db->like('title', 'match'); ee()->db->or_like('body', $match);
// WHERE `title` LIKE '%match%' ESCAPE '!' OR  `body` LIKE '%match%' ESCAPE '!'

not_like($field[, $match = ''[, $side = 'both']])

Parameter Type Description
$field Mixed Either the field name for the WHERE ... NOT LIKE clause, or an associative array where the keys are fields and the values are the match
$match String The value to match against
$side String Controls where the wildcard (%) is placed, by default uses 'both' for both sides, but you can also use left or right
Returns CI_DB_active_record The Active Record object

This method is identical to like(), except that it generates NOT LIKE statements:

ee()->db->not_like('title', 'match');   // WHERE `title` NOT LIKE '%match% ESCAPE '!'

or_not_like($field[, $match = ''[, $side = 'both']])

Parameter Type Description
$field Mixed Either the field name for the OR ... NOT LIKE clause, or an associative array where the keys are fields and the values are the match
$match String The value to match against
$side String Controls where the wildcard (%) is placed, by default uses 'both' for both sides, but you can also use left or right
Returns CI_DB_active_record The Active Record object

This method is identical to not_like(), except that multiple instances are joined by OR:

ee()->db->like('title', 'match');
ee()->db->or_not_like('body', 'match');
// WHERE `title` LIKE '%match% OR  `body` NOT LIKE '%match%' ESCAPE '!'

group_by($by)

Parameter Type Description
$by Mixed Either the field or an array of fields for the GROUP BY ... clause
Returns CI_DB_active_record The Active Record object

Permits you to write the GROUP BY portion of your query:

ee()->db->group_by("title"); // Produces: GROUP BY title

You can also pass an array of multiple values as well:

ee()->db->group_by(array("title", "date"));  // Produces: GROUP BY title, date

distinct([$val = TRUE])

Parameter Type Description
$val Boolean Optionally set to FALSE to disable DISTINCT
Returns CI_DB_active_record The Active Record object

Adds the DISTINCT keyword to a query:

ee()->db->distinct();
ee()->db->get('table'); // Produces: SELECT DISTINCT * FROM table

having($key[, $value = ''[, $escape = TRUE]])

Parameter Type Description
$key Mixed Either the field for the HAVING clause or an associative array containing the field as the key and the condition as the value
$value String The condition to check for
$escape Boolean Set to FALSE to prevent CI_DB_driver::protect_identifiers() and CI_DB_driver::escape()
Returns CI_DB_active_record The Active Record object

Permits you to write the HAVING portion of your query. There are 2 possible syntaxes, 1 argument or 2:

ee()->db->having('user_id = 45');  // Produces: HAVING user_id = 45
ee()->db->having('user_id',  45);  // Produces: HAVING user_id = 45

You can also pass an array of multiple values as well:

ee()->db->having(array('title =' => 'My Title', 'id <' => $id));
// Produces: HAVING title = 'My Title', id < 45

You can prevent escaping content by passing an optional third argument, and setting it to FALSE:

ee()->db->having('user_id',  45);  // Produces: HAVING `user_id` = 45 in some databases such as MySQL
ee()->db->having('user_id',  45, FALSE);  // Produces: HAVING user_id = 45

or_having($key[, $value = ''[, $escape = TRUE]])

Parameter Type Description
$key Mixed Either the field for the HAVING clause or an associative array containing the field as the key and the condition as the value
$value String The condition to check for
$escape Boolean Set to FALSE to prevent CI_DB_driver::protect_identifiers() and CI_DB_driver::escape()
Returns CI_DB_active_record The Active Record object

Identical to having(), only separates multiple clauses with OR.

order_by($orderby[, $direction = ''[, $escape = NULL]])

Parameter Type Description
$orderby Mixed The field to ORDER BY
$direction String The direction to ORDER BY: ASC, DESC, or RANDOM
$escape Boolean Set to FALSE to prevent CI_DB_driver::protect_identifiers() and CI_DB_driver::escape()
Returns CI_DB_active_record The Active Record object

Lets you set an ORDER BY clause.

The first parameter contains the name of the column you would like to order by.

The second parameter lets you set the direction of the result. Options are ASC, DESC AND RANDOM.

ee()->db->order_by('title', 'DESC');
// Produces: ORDER BY `title` DESC

You can also pass your own string in the first parameter:

ee()->db->order_by('title DESC, name ASC');
// Produces: ORDER BY `title` DESC, `name` ASC

Or multiple function calls can be made if you need multiple fields.

ee()->db->order_by('title', 'DESC');
ee()->db->order_by('name', 'ASC');
// Produces: ORDER BY `title` DESC, `name` ASC

If you choose the RANDOM direction option, then the first parameters will be ignored, unless you specify a numeric seed value:

ee()->db->order_by('title', 'RANDOM');
// Produces: ORDER BY RAND()

ee()->db->order_by(42, 'RANDOM');
// Produces: ORDER BY RAND(42)

limit($value[, $offset = ''])

Parameter Type Description
$value Int The number of rows to LIMIT
$offset Int The number of rows to offset
Returns CI_DB_active_record The Active Record object

Lets you limit the number of rows you would like returned by the query:

ee()->db->limit(10);  // Produces: LIMIT 10

The second parameter lets you set a result offset:

ee()->db->limit(10, 20);  // Produces: LIMIT 20, 10 (in MySQL.  Other databases have slightly different syntax)

ffset($offset)

Parameter Type Description
$offset Int The number of rows to offset
Returns CI_DB_active_record The Active Record object

Lets you set the offset separately from limit():

ee()->db->offset(10);  // Produces: LIMIT n, 10

count_all_results([$table = ''])

Parameter Type Description
$table String The table to count results FROM, can be omitted if you’ve used from() already
Returns Int The number of rows for a particular Active Record query

Permits you to determine the number of rows in a particular Active Record query. Queries will accept Active Record restrictors such as where(), or_where(), like(), or_like(), etc. Example:

echo ee()->db->count_all_results('my_table');  // Produces an integer, like 25
ee()->db->like('title', 'match');
ee()->db->from('my_table');
echo ee()->db->count_all_results(); // Produces an integer, like 17

Inserting Data

insert([$table = ''[, $set = NULL]])

Parameter Type Description
$table String The name of the table to INSERT INTO
$set Array An associative array of field names as keys and the values as values
Returns CI_DB_result A query result object

Generates an insert string based on the data you supply, and runs the query. You can either pass an array or an object to the function. Here is an example using an array:

$data = array(
    'title' => 'My title',
    'name' => 'My Name',
    'date' => 'My date'
);

ee()->db->insert('mytable', $data);
// Produces: INSERT INTO mytable (title, name, date) VALUES ('My title', 'My name', 'My date')

The first parameter will contain the table name, the second is an associative array of values.

Here is an example using an object:

/*
class Myclass {
    public $title = 'My Title';
    public $content = 'My Content';
    public $date = 'My Date';
}
*/

$object = new Myclass;
ee()->db->insert('mytable', $object);
// Produces: INSERT INTO mytable (title, content, date) VALUES ('My Title', 'My Content', 'My Date')

The first parameter will contain the table name, the second is an object.

insert_batch([$table = ''[, $set = NULL]])

Parameter Type Description
$table String The name of the table to INSERT INTO
$set Array An associative array of field names as keys and the values as values
Returns Boolean TRUE if successful, FALSE otherwise

Generates an insert string based on the data you supply, and runs the query. You can either pass an array or an object to the function. Here is an example using an array:

$data = array(
    array(
        'title' => 'My title',
        'name' => 'My Name',
        'date' => 'My date'
    ),
    array(
        'title' => 'Another title',
        'name' => 'Another Name',
        'date' => 'Another date'
    )
);

ee()->db->insert_batch('mytable', $data);
// Produces: INSERT INTO mytable (title, name, date) VALUES ('My title', 'My name', 'My date'),  ('Another title', 'Another name', 'Another date')

The first parameter will contain the table name, the second is an associative array of values.

replace([$table = ''[, $set = NULL]])

Parameter Type Description
$table String The name of the table to REPLACE INTO
$set Array An associative array of field names as keys and the values as values
Returns CI_DB_result A query result object

This method executes a REPLACE statement, which is basically the SQL standard for (optional) DELETE + INSERT, using PRIMARY and UNIQUE keys as the determining factor. In our case, it will save you from the need to implement complex logics with different combinations of select(), update(), delete() and insert() calls.

Example:

$data = array(
    'title' => 'My title',
    'name'  => 'My Name',
    'date'  => 'My date'
);

ee()->db->replace('table', $data);

// Executes: REPLACE INTO mytable (title, name, date) VALUES ('My title', 'My name', 'My date')

In the above example, if we assume that the title field is our primary key, then if a row containing ‘My title’ as the title value, that row will be deleted with our new row data replacing it.

Usage of the set() method is also allowed and all fields are automatically escaped, just like with insert().

set($key[, $value = ''[, $escape = TRUE]])

Parameter Type Description
$key Mixed Either the field for the SET clause or an associative array containing the field as the key and the value as the value
$value String The value to SET
$escape Boolean Set to FALSE to prevent CI_DB_driver::protect_identifiers() and CI_DB_driver::escape()
Returns CI_DB_active_record The Active Record object

This function enables you to set values for inserts or updates. It can be used instead of passing a data array directly to the insert or update functions:

ee()->db->set('name', $name);
ee()->db->insert('mytable');  // Produces: INSERT INTO mytable (name) VALUES ('{$name}')

If you use multiple function called they will be assembled properly based on whether you are doing an insert or an update:

ee()->db->set('name', $name);
ee()->db->set('title', $title);
ee()->db->set('status', $status);
ee()->db->insert('mytable');

set() will also accept an optional third parameter (_$escape_), that will prevent data from being escaped if set to FALSE. To illustrate the difference, here is set() used both with and without the escape parameter:

ee()->db->set('field', 'field+1', FALSE);
ee()->db->insert('mytable'); // gives INSERT INTO mytable (field) VALUES (field+1)
ee()->db->set('field', 'field+1');
ee()->db->insert('mytable'); // gives INSERT INTO mytable (field) VALUES ('field+1')

You can also pass an associative array to this function:

$array = array(
    'name' => $name,
    'title' => $title,
    'status' => $status
);

ee()->db->set($array);
ee()->db->insert('mytable');

Or an object:

/*
class Myclass {
    public $title = 'My Title';
    public $content = 'My Content';
    public $date = 'My Date';
}
*/

$object = new Myclass;
ee()->db->set($object);
ee()->db->insert('mytable');

Updating Data

update([$table = ''[, $set = NULL[, $where = NULL[, $limit = NULL]]]])

Parameter Type Description
$table String The name of the table to UPDATE
$set Array An associative array with fields as the keys and values as the values
$where Array An associative array representing the where() clause
$limit Int Set to a numerical value to LIMIT the UPDATE
Returns CI_DB_result A query result object

Generates an update string and runs the query based on the data you supply. You can pass an array or an object to the function. Here is an example using an array:

$data = array(
    'title' => $title,
    'name' => $name,
    'date' => $date
);

ee()->db->where('id', $id);
ee()->db->update('mytable', $data);
// Produces: // UPDATE mytable  // SET title = '{$title}', name = '{$name}', date = '{$date}' // WHERE id = $id

Or you can supply an object:

/*
class Myclass {
    public $title = 'My Title';
    public $content = 'My Content';
    public $date = 'My Date';
}
*/

$object = new Myclass;
ee()->db->where('id', $id);
ee()->db->update('mytable', $object);
// Produces: // UPDATE mytable  // SET title = '{$title}', name = '{$name}', date = '{$date}' // WHERE id = $id

You’ll notice the use of the where() function, enabling you to set the WHERE clause. You can optionally pass this information directly into the update function as a string:

ee()->db->update('mytable', $data, "id = 4");

Or as an array:

ee()->db->update('mytable', $data, array('id' => $id));

You may also use the set() function described above when performing updates.

update_batch([$table = ''[, $set = NULL[, $index = NULL]]])

Parameter Type Description
$table String The name of the table to UPDATE
$set Array An associative array with fields as the keys and values as the values
$index String The WHERE key
Returns Boolean TRUE if successful, FALSE otherwise

Generates an update string based on the data you supply, and runs the query. You can either pass an array or an object to the function. Here is an example using an array:

$data = array(
   array(
      'title' => 'My title' ,
      'name' => 'My Name 2' ,
      'date' => 'My date 2'
   ),
   array(
      'title' => 'Another title' ,
      'name' => 'Another Name 2' ,
      'date' => 'Another date 2'
   )
);

ee()->db->update_batch('mytable', $data, 'title');

// Produces:
// UPDATE `mytable` SET `name` = CASE
// WHEN `title` = 'My title' THEN 'My Name 2'
// WHEN `title` = 'Another title' THEN 'Another Name 2'
// ELSE `name` END,
// `date` = CASE
// WHEN `title` = 'My title' THEN 'My date 2'
// WHEN `title` = 'Another title' THEN 'Another date 2'
// ELSE `date` END
// WHERE `title` IN ('My title','Another title')

The first parameter will contain the table name, the second is an associative array of values, the third parameter is the where key.

Note: CI_DB_driver::affected_rows() won’t give you proper results with this method, due to the very nature of how it works. Instead, update_batch() returns the number of rows affected.

Deleting Data

delete([$table = ''[, $where = ''[, $limit = NULL[, $reset_data = TRUE]]]])

Parameter Type Description
$table String The name of the table to DELETE from
$where Array An associative array representing the where() clause
$limit Int Set to a numerical value to LIMIT the DELETE
$reset_data Boolean Set to FALSE to not reset Active Record’s “write” values
Returns CI_DB_result A query result object

Generates a delete SQL string and runs the query:

ee()->db->delete('mytable', array('id' => $id));
// Produces:
// DELETE FROM mytable
// WHERE id = $id

The first parameter is the table name, the second is the where clause. You can also use the where() or or_where() functions instead of passing the data to the second parameter of the function:

ee()->db->where('id', $id);
ee()->db->delete('mytable');

// Produces:
// DELETE FROM mytable
// WHERE id = $id

An array of table names can be passed into delete() if you would like to delete data from more than 1 table:

$tables = array('table1', 'table2', 'table3');
ee()->db->where('id', '5');
ee()->db->delete($tables);

If you want to delete all data from a table, you can use the truncate() function, or empty_table().

empty_table([$table = ''])

Parameter Type Description
$table String The name of the table to DELETE FROM
Returns CI_DB_result A query result object

Generates a delete SQL string and runs the query:

ee()->db->empty_table('mytable'); // Produces: DELETE FROM mytable

truncate([$table = ''])

Parameter Type Description
$table String The name of the table to TRUNCATE
Returns CI_DB_result A query result object

Generates a truncate SQL string and runs the query:

ee()->db->from('mytable');
ee()->db->truncate();

// or

ee()->db->truncate('mytable');

// Produce:
// TRUNCATE mytable

Note: If the TRUNCATE command isn’t available, truncate() will execute as DELETE FROM table.

Query Grouping

Query grouping allows you to create groups of WHERE clauses by enclosing them in parentheses. This will allow you to create queries with complex WHERE clauses. Nested groups are supported. Example:

ee()->db->select('*')->from('my_table')
    ->start_group()
        ->where('a', 'a')
        ->or_start_group()
            ->where('b', 'b')
            ->where('c', 'c')
        ->end_group()
    ->end_group()
    ->where('d', 'd')
->get();

// Generates:
// SELECT * FROM (`my_table`) WHERE ( `a` = 'a' OR ( `b` = 'b' AND `c` = 'c' ) ) AND `d` = 'd'

Note: groups need to be balanced, make sure every start_group() is matched by a end_group().

start_group()

Parameter Type Description
Returns CI_DB_active_record A query result object

Starts a new group by adding an opening parenthesis to the WHERE clause of the query.

or_start_group()

Parameter Type Description
Returns CI_DB_active_record A query result object

Starts a new group by adding an opening parenthesis to the WHERE clause of the query, prefixing it with OR.

end_group()

Parameter Type Description
Returns CI_DB_active_record A query result object

Ends the current group by adding an closing parenthesis to the WHERE clause of the query.

Method Chaining

Method chaining allows you to simplify your syntax by connecting multiple functions. Consider this example:

$query = ee()->db->select('title')
        ->where('id', $id)
        ->limit(10, 20)
        ->get('mytable');

Caching

While not “true” caching, Active Record enables you to save (or “cache”) certain parts of your queries for reuse at a later point in your script’s execution. Normally, when an Active Record call is completed, all stored information is reset for the next call. With caching, you can prevent this reset, and reuse information easily.

Cached calls are cumulative. If you make 2 cached select() calls, and then 2 uncached select() calls, this will result in 4 select() calls.

start_cache()

Parameter Type Description
Returns Void

This function must be called to begin caching. All Active Record queries of the correct type (see below for supported queries) are stored for later use.

stop_cache()

Parameter Type Description
Returns Void

This function can be called to stop caching.

flush_cache()

Parameter Type Description
Returns Void

This function deletes all items from the Active Record cache.

Here’s a usage example:

ee()->db->start_cache();
ee()->db->select('field1');
ee()->db->stop_cache();
ee()->db->get('tablename');
//Generates: SELECT `field1` FROM (`tablename`)

ee()->db->select('field2');
ee()->db->get('tablename');
//Generates:  SELECT `field1`, `field2` FROM (`tablename`)

ee()->db->flush_cache();
ee()->db->select('field2');
ee()->db->get('tablename');
//Generates:  SELECT `field2` FROM (`tablename`)

Note: The following statements can be cached: select(), from(), join(), where(), like(), group_by(), having(), order_by(), set().